Filtering the colour from black & white

Assessing exposure factors and effect on black & white film for a cheap set of colour filters.

For a few years I’ve had amongst my camera gear, a set of coloured filters bought on eBay for a mere £7.50 delivered. From time to time I’ve used the yellow one but I’ve never actually assessed their effect on black & white film or measured the exposure adjustment each would require. With a bit of time to spare last weekend, I decided it was time to get experimenting.

The day looked set for good even light from a bright sky. My plan was to load six sheets of FP4+ in holders for my Intrepid camera to make exposures of the same subject set up under even lighting, each with a different filter: unfiltered, yellow, orange, red, green and blue. Before doing that however, I would assess the exposure adjustment that each filter would require. My Sekonic L-758 meter set up on a tripod would be used for that.

The L-758 can measure Exposure Values (EV) in tenths of a stop and can be set for spot metering, 3D incident metering with the lumisphere extended or directional incident metering with the lumisphere retracted. I used it with the lumisphere retracted and compared the difference in EV when uncovered against the EV when the filter was held in front of it. I took three readings for each filter, averaging the results for each.

Yellow … -0.7 EV
Orange … -2.1 EV
Red … -3.1 EV
Green … -2.1 EV
Blue … -1.7 EV

It took a little time to carry out and record my exposure measurements. By the time I had finished and then prepared a ‘set’ to make exposures with each filter, the sky had clouded over and lost any brightness. It meant longer exposures than I would have liked and less contrast in what light there was but having started I pressed on.

Set setup for filter testTo aid identification, I printed a ‘label’ for each filter. Unfortunately I forgot to use them for the yellow and red filters so edited the developed film sheets with marker pen! Also in the setup frame was a colour chart and the L-758. I would sit on a lime green camping chair wearing a bright blue polo shirt with bright yellow piping around the collar.

The lens I used allowed for thirds of a stop settings so I was able to apply my exposure adjustments with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Here are the results:

The results are better than I expected. The filters appear to work just as they should which makes them exceptionally good value at just £1.50 each and they came in a handy protective pouch too! And it’s good to have at last, what seem to be accurate exposure adjustment factors. The effect each colour filter has on subject colour is quite obvious for my shirt but can also be seen across the spectrum on the colour chart stuck to the wall of the shed (click on the images to see full size).

Split grade printing

Some months ago I won an online auction for a complete set of Ilford Multigrade below-lens filters in near pristine condition. Today, I had the opportunity to put them to use.

Some months ago I won an online auction for a complete set of Ilford Multigrade below-lens filters in near pristine condition. Today, I had the opportunity to put them to use.

About a month ago I posted a blog about a forty-something year old contact strip discovered at the back of an old photo album (The abandoned croft house of Roddy Stewart). I’ve since scanned the contact strip and created a set of 35mm film sized digital negatives on Permajet acetate sheet to print from. This morning the rain rained and looked like it would be on all day so I set up my darkroom and disappeared within it for the rest of the day!

The digital negatives, created from an old and quite marked contact strip were already quite high contrast and with pinhole-like soft focus but the images have resonated strongly with people who know the house and its history. They have a story to tell and I’ve felt compelled to make what I can of them. Since discovering the images I’ve re-visited the house albeit briefly and been able to take a couple more photos of it as it is today.

I printed on 5×7 Ilford MG Art 300 paper. It’s a cotton rag base paper with a textured, egshell matt finish that not only feels ‘right’ for the vintage of the subject matter but also hides some of the imperfections inherent in the images. I expected the high contrast of the digital negatives to be troublesome to print so I’ve been reading up on split grade printing in the hope of smoothing the way.

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The below-lens filters were a breeze to use. One test strip at grade 2½ gave me a base exposure for shadow detail. Halving this gave me exposure times for a split grade test strip/print, half at grade 5 for shadows and half at grade 0 for highlights and overall contrast. From this print I could determine any adjustment needed to the exposure given at grade 5, and to adjust the brightness and overall contrast of the print I could change the exposure at grade 0 and/or change the filter grade. (There’s a great set of video tutorials for this on the Ilford Photo website).

Some prints worked better than others but on the whole they are much as I had expected and hoped for. I’ve already posted a set of the contact strip images so it would be wasteful to post another set of the prints. However, here’s a then and now comparison of a split-grade print made via a digital negative from the original contact strip and a split-grade contact print of an FP4+ 5×4 negative exposed just a couple of weeks ago, both from much the same viewpoint.

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then
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now

Since my blog post last month and re-visiting the area I’ve discovered quite a lot about the house, its history and the family who lived and worked in it. I need to do more research and put together the photographs and the story for posterity, perhaps in a wee book.

Every cloud has a silver lining

and at the end of every rainbow is a pot of gold.

It’s not often that I rejoice at a weekend weather forecast of heavy rain. However with the attractions of the outdoors in fine summer weather my salt printing project has stalled somewhat. Now I could anticipate spending time in the darkroom without the feeling I was missing out!

A month or so ago I had made some alterations to the salt print process shown to me at a workshop and I have been keen to make further refinements. The process, for me, is time and space consuming and I need to be able to set aside at least a full day devoted to the task. My regular darkroom is a temporary adaptation of a shower room, too small for my salt print needs. Instead, I adapt a spare room where we still have the cots that our grandchildren used when they came to stay over. The cots have been outgrown and with a bit of plywood they convert into a useful, if low, work surface!

Once cut to size and salted, the paper is sensitised with silver nitrate and then exposed under UV light before processing. I use an adapted face tanning machice as my UV light source. Processing the exposed print involves five separate chemistry baths and five water washes – that’s a lot of trays and containers to find room for!

During processing, a salt print changes colour and density quite dramatically and to make a reasonable assessment of exposure times a test strip or print needs to be fully processed through to at least a reasonably dry print. With a shortened final wash and the assistance of a hairdryer to dry it off, processing my test print took a couple of hours but I was rewarded with an exposure assessment of between three and five minutes depending on the density of the negative. Last time round I had been overexposing by a stop or more, leading to lost shadow detail.

By early afternoon I was ready to start printing in earnest. I prepared a project plan which would enable me to process prints at ten-minute intervals and keep a check on which print should be in which bath or wash. My first batch would be for six prints and then after a wee break, a final batch of four prints would take me well into the evening before finishing.

Each time I process one of these prints I discover something new or something changes, apparently inexplicably. The process is serendipitous and I actually quite like that. Reprinting the same set of negatives gives the opportunity for comparison, for re-examination of each stage in the process and for appreciation of the beauty in whatever is the outcome. Perhaps next time I’ll rescan the original film sheets and/or remake the digital negatives with tweaks to the colour screening.

Meanwhile, the task of cleaning up, putting away, and restoring the room to its original purpose awaits!

Drawing parallels with light and shade

Discovering similarities between pencil drawing and photography

Most workdays I take a break for a lunchtime walk and almost always I have a camera of some sort with me. That’s not to say that I always take photographs, it’s just become a habit to carry some means of recording whatever I see that takes my interest.

One day last week I left the camera behind and instead took just a notebook and pencil. My inspiration had come from seeing in a local craft shop window, a pencil drawing that was so precisely detailed I’d initially thought it was a black and white photograph. It got me wondering how I might get on drawing rather than photographing a scene. No harm giving it a go!

sketch

My first attempt was understandably a bit basic. Little more than a few lines on the page, perspective not great and lacking in any sense of depth. But I enjoyed the experience and found myself looking at the scene, one with which I am very familiar, in much greater detail than had I been taking a photograph of it. I realised that just as in a photograph, particularly a black and white one, highlights and shadows, light and shade are used to define the image. There’s more to this drawing lark than meets the eye!

Intrigued, I decided to investigate pencil drawing techniques. Google and YouTube provided a plethora of suggestions, hints and tips to try out. My local craft store provided the basic materials: a set of pencils, an eraser and a pad of drawing paper. I was on the road to making new discoveries!

It took a while to whittle down the internet search results to one or two sites that I found useful and one in particular that I seem to be spending more time on. There are techniques to learn, practice to be done and redone and skills to be honed. Maybe one day I’ll actually draw something that I might otherwise have photographed.

forms

It was interesting to discover the concept of building ‘value’ with just one pencil to create a range of shades or tones from light to dark. Just as in photography, Ansel Adams’ ‘Zone System’ is used to determine exposure based on a mathematically determined scale of values applied to luminance and density, I was recognising parallels with the scale of values that could be produced on paper with the graphite from a drawing pencil.

I’ve been looking more closely at the things I see on my lunchtime walks. Pausing for longer to observe the nuances of light and shade, imagining how I would record them on paper and perhaps taking a photograph from which I might later attempt to make a drawing. I’ve been hooked. Perhaps the next time I book myself on a workshop it will be to learn some aspect of drawing rather than of photography.

Fixing a wayward pinhole

As someone more used to creating pinholes I took a twisted delight in sealing up one in the bellows of a junk-shop find.

Just a few weeks ago my younger daughter gave to me for Father’s Day, a Vest Pocket Kodak Model B camera that she had spotted in a junk shop window. She sure knows the way to my heart!

The camera was clean and appeared to be in good condition. The shutter worked smoothly and the aperture stop control rotated with just the right detent at each stop. The bellows were clean looked to be in good order and the lens assembly pulled out and clicked into place as it should. All that was missing was the scribe for the Autographic function – by sliding open a door on the camera back information could be scratched though the film backing paper and exposed to light to write the information onto the film itself.

Junk shop find for Father’s Day.

It took a bit longer to work out how to open the film chamber. Researching on line for instructions and other information identified that the camera was an early model. Production began in 1925 and in 1928 the method of opening the film chamber was changed from two sprung buttons on the side of the film chamber to a lever worked from the front. My camera has the sprung buttons on the side so is pre-1928. I also came across the suggestion that that my example, made by the Canadian Kodak Co. of Toronto was not only an early model but one that may also be relatively rare. On the other hand it is very common for these cameras to be found minus their Autographic scribe!

One of four apertures is set by rotating a disc situated in front of the lens: They are numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4 but with a bit of careful measuring I calculated them to be f/11, f/16, f/22 and f/32 respectively. The shutter has two settings, T for Timed and I for Instantaneous which sounds like something around 1/40 second. The final twist is that the shutter lever operates in both directions.

With all that information the camera took on quite an exciting prospect and I duly sourced a couple of rolls of ReraPan 100-127 black and white film with which to check it out. Fortunately there was an empty spool still in the camera so as soon as the new film arrived I was all set to load a roll and take some pictures.

The day the film arrived was cloudy and I only made two exposures, at the widest aperture setting. The remaining six exposures were made a couple of days later in bright sunlight with aperture settings 3 and 4. The film was developed in Ilfosol 3 diluted 1+9 for 7 minutes at 18°C, scanned and the files adjusted for black and white points in levels.

The light leak was pretty obvious. Even on the exposures made in dull light the triangle of overexposed image was clear. On the sunny day images the same area was obliterated. My ninety year old camera has probably been lying at the back of a cupboard or in an attic for many decades, hence its excellent outward cosmetic appearance and well functioning mechanicals, but it will have been closed up with the bellows tightly folded together. Opening up the camera, and time, has perhaps been just too much for the folds in the leather. A repair would be necessary to restore the camera to working order but given the overall condition I reckoned it would be worthwhile.

It’s been a while since I made a pinhole camera so I decided to turn the idea on its head and make a pinhole image to locate the leak! I took some measurements of the internal dimensions of the bellows and made a template for an insert. In the darkroom, the insert was cut from a sheet of MGIV RC Satin paper and placed inside the bellows with the emulsion side outwards. With the camera back in place, the film counter window taped over and the shutter closed I placed the camera outside in daylight for five minutes or so then returned to the darkroom to develop the insert.

From the developed paper I could be sure the light leak was from a single source, the position of which was easily identified. I made an initial repair with a small piece of electrical PVC tape. It was much easier to do than I had anticipated as the size of the camera allowed easy access to work the leather with my fingers from both sides. I finally remade my repair by taping all the way along both top-edge creases as it looked neater. I tested the repair with by exposing couple of paper negative exposures on MGIV RC Satin paper cut to fit the film chamber.

Paper negatives confirming that the light leak has been fixed.

The electrical tape is light tight and sufficiently thin and flexible to fold up neatly with the original leather of the bellows. With that small repair, I reckon I can be confident to load the second of the two rolls of film I bought and expect good results in bright light. Roll on the sunshine!

The abandoned croft house of Roddy Stewart

Memories rekindled of exploration with a camera on discovering a 40+ year old contact strip at the back of an old photo album.

In a few weeks time my wife and I anticipate celebrating one of the big milestones in married life. We’ve been looking through old photo albums and as we opened one from our student days a contact strip of black and white images fell out the back.

During most of the 1970s I took photographs with a Zenit E, a solid Russian brick of a camera with a 58mm Helios lens. My media of choice was slide film although on rare occasions I would use colour negative. I hardly ever shot on black and white film. Yet here was a black and white contact strip that I immediately recognised.

The original negatives are long gone and I never had any prints made but for whatever reason I had kept the contact strip made by the lab when they had developed my film. As I looked over the tiny pictures I began to remember what they were and why I had taken them, no doubt the reason I had kept the strip as a record.

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The pictures are of the abandoned croft house of Roddy Stewart, the neighbour and cousin of who in due course would become my father-in-law.

Roddy had given up his croft some time before and now lived out his remaining years up the hill and nearer the road in a house overlooking his old croft and Badenscallie Bay beyond. On my first visit to Badenscallie in 1973 the house still had a roof. A year later the roof had partly blown in. Seeing the photographs reminded me of the strong sense I had at the time that the house’s deterioration should be recorded, that by the following year there would be less of it to see. Nature was taking it’s course.

And so I walked across the hill with just my camera and a solitary 24-exposure roll of black and white film for company. The photographs record the sequence of my exploratory footsteps around and through the ruin. Looking back I remember the erie silence, the sense of being in a place where life had been lived, struggling with the challenges of daily living against the elemental forces of nature. A sense of life lived at the pace of the seasons and with the rising and setting of the sun. A hard yet peaceful life. Viewed now, the images recorded then have a beauty and a sense of being about them, reminders of what once was, thas I couldn’t just return them to the back of the album.

Why I didn’t have prints made was probably because at the time prints just weren’t my ‘thing’. It is likely that I had the film in my bag just for something to try on a dull day: most slide film of the time was a mere 64 or 25 ASA and I’m quite sure this black and white film would have been a ‘fast’ 400 ASA. The contact strip was clean so I scanned it and then as it pulled me in I decided to scan each individual frame and look at the story they told in more detail.

Here are all 24 frames, in order, telling the story of my journey some forty years or so ago. Hopefully I’ll return again soon and find out what has become of this place.

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Work in progress

The ongoing saga of my salt print experiments.

To date I’ve made a couple of attempts at salt printing: at a workshop back in April which I followed up last month with my first attempt at home. Feedback from a group of friends convinced me that I was on the right track and with a group exhibition planned for later this year, that I had a project worth pursuing.

My quest for exhibition quality salt prints took a step futher at the weekend with a marathon two-day darkroom session and a reworked process involving carefully selected art paper, gold toner and the usual large measure of luck.

Paper preparation and exposure

  • Image: Digital negatives prepared from Ilford FP4+ 4×5 sheet film.
  • Paper: Daler Rowney, The Langton Prestige 300gsm HP.
  • Salt solution: 2% sodium chloride applied by foam applicator.
  • Sensitiser solution: 1ml of 12% silver nitrate applied by pipette and hake brush.
  • Exposure: UV face tanner, time determined by test strip.

Print processing

  • Pre wash: tap water, 10 minutes with frequent agitation.
  • Salt bath: 1% sodium chloride, 30 seconds with agitation.
  • Wash: tap water, 10 minutes with frequent agitation.
  • Toning bath: Tetenal Goldtoner diluted 1:4, 5 minutes.
  • Wash: tap water, 5 minutes, frequent agitation
  • 2-bath Fix: 15% hypo with 0.25% sodium carbonate, 5 minutes each bath with agitation.
  • Wash: tap water, 5 minutes with agitation.
  • Hypo clear bath: 1% sodium sulphite, 5 minutes with agitation.
  • Final wash: tap water, 60 minutes.
  • Dry.

The above process was adapted from that detailed in the book The Salt Print Manual by Ellie Young. Limitations to space, resources and availability of materials necessitated some compromises:

  • For each wash I used single 40-litre plastic storage boxes rather than a two-tray set up with running water,
  • I used a ready made product, Tetenal Goldtoner, which I diluted to strength, rather than preparing toner with gold chloride solution which I simply couldn’t source in the UK,
  • My local craft supplies store does not stock any of the tested art papers recommended in the book but did stock The Langton Prestige 300gsm HP paper which met the specifications for being 100% cotton, acid free, gelatin sized and of sufficient weight to withstand all the washing.

I wanted to have a defined coated area which the negatives would overlap slightly, thus avoiding the sharp, straight edges of the negatives showing on the print. To achieve this I formed three masks from mountboard, one for the salt solution, one for the sensitiser and one to position the negative. By using separate masks I avoided contamination between the coatings. Once sensitised, the paper has to be exposed within two hours so I split my workflow into two batches, preparing four sheets at a time.

The first print was not much success, showing staining where the drops of silver nitrate from the pipette had fallen on the paper and then been poorly spread with very obvious brush marks. The second print was better and from the third print onwards results were very acceptable although by the final three, shadows were blocking up and the prints were becoming quite dark, a sign of too much silver.

I concluded that I had not sufficiently wetted the hake brush before starting and so for the first sheet it had absorbed rather than spread the silver nitrate sensitiser. As the session progressed the brush was carrying over a combination of salt and sensitiser from one sheet to the next leading to too great a concentration on the later sheets. I also noticed that the bristles on the hake brush became clumped together and because the brush strokes were constrained to the image area by the mask, this led to a grid-like pattern of sensitiser application, most noticeably around the edges and corners of the prints.

First negative printed: On left, sensitised with foam applicator. On right, sensitised with hake brush.

There was just enough silver nitrate solution left over to make a second print from the first negative. This time I spread it with a well wetted clean foam applicator. Unfortunately the paper was rather hurredly coated and each coat was not properly dried before exposing the paper which led to some dark banding in the finished print. However it did show me the difference that using slightly less sensitiser and a different applicator could make.

A couple of days later I had the opportunity to show the set of dried prints to my group of friends. It was interesting to observe their reactions and useful to hear their feedback. Perhaps I should not be surprised to find that prints I would have discarded are aesthetically pleasing to others!

I am greatly encouraged that my marathon darkroom session was not in vain. I’ll need to plan soon for the next one!

 

Getting the Blues

A cyanotype diversion

I’ve reached a hiatus in my salt print experiments while awaiting delivery of gold toner for a process I want to try. Meantime, I’ve had a cyanotype kit sitting in the corner unused since it arrived wrapped in Christmas paper, a gift from my younger daughter.

Today the sun shone and with nothing particular planned I decided it was time to try out the cyanotype kit. There are a variety of kits available to buy from several suppliers, this one was put together and sold by Stills Gallery in Edinburgh and is self-contained and comprehensive.

Two opaque plastic 50ml bottles containing the chemicals, Ferric Ammonium Citrate and Potassium Ferrocyanide needing only the addition of water, a foam brush, 3ml pipette, nitrile gloves and Fabriano art paper all contained in a plastic case which doubles as a tray in which to wash the prints. I needed only a plastic cup in which to combine the chemistry and a dimly lit room in which to coat the paper and let it dry.

I chose two of the digital negatives I’d prepared a few weeks ago for my salt print experiments, prepared a couple of pieces of paper and set them in the sun using my quarter-plate contact print frame. The first exposure was about 12 minutes and came out a bit dark so I reduced exposure for the second to 7 minutes.

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Kit box and drying prints
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First print, 12 minutes exposure
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Second print, 7 minutes exposure

Fun times. Going for gold next!

Seven days

Responding to a Facebook challenge to post seven photos over seven days.

From time to time I like a challenge, particularly when it involves photography, and it happened that the time was just right when I was nominated for such a challenge by a Facebook friend.

On the face of it, something quite simple: just post one photo each day for seven days and each day nominate a friend to join in. A chain-letter style bit of fun online. It was easy to jump straight in to accept the challenge, overlooking that the photograph should contain neither buildings nor faces. Given some thought, the true nature of the challenge was not in the frequency or regularity of posting but in the subject matter of the posts themselves!

It so happened that on the morning of the day I was nominated I had taken a camera with me on a fairly regular Saturday round of ferrying grandchildren, dog walking and weekly grocery shopping. The weather had turned wet but behind the purple-grey clouds was the promise of sunshine to follow and beautiful contrasty light sparkling on wet surfaces. I had my first post already in the camera!

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Day 1: Raindrops

There’s no getting around the convenience of a digital camera to record images that are to be posted daily but I wanted to use emulsion-based media where time and opportunity permitted.

That opportunity came on Day 2. I chose to use The Countess, a sixteenth-plate camera gifted to me just one year ago, having loaded its plate holders with direct positive paper. Not being a working day I had time to make exposures, develop, dry, scan and choose an image to upload.

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Day 2: Fallen blossom

With the working week under way, Day 3 was back to digital and what caught my eye was the bright colour of a group of flowers, or perhaps they were weeds (I confess to horticultural ignorance!), growing by the path while out on my lunchtime walk.

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Day 3: Orangeness

Like many others I awoke on Day 4 to the news of a suicide bomber detonating himself amidst a crowd of young concert goers in Manchester. As the day progressed the grim news unfolded of twenty two innocent young lives lost and around sixty injuried, many seriously. My thoughts dominated my choice of photograph to upload. Indeed I wondered whether to pause the frivolity of posting an image at all. In the end I decided to post, along with a summary of my thoughts.

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Day 4: The edge is not the end

Some days I pause a while when walking on the beach, to watch a ship as it approaches the edge of the world before falling over and disappearing from sight.

Reassuringly I find that ships appear from beyond the edge of the world and I watch them too, comforted to know that beyond the edge is not the end.

Today’s post is for Manchester, for those who have lost loved ones, for those who are suffering physically and mentally, for those who’s lives have been changed by what they have experienced, for those who have sought to help and to bring comfort. For the young people of our society that they might know there is hope.

Day 5 saw me return to the beach in search of some small details to photograph in the day’s bright sunshine, yet I found  my thoughts dominated by the idea of fragility.
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Day 5: Featherweight

 

An incredibly early start to Day 6 gave me time to wander the shoreline enjoying the soft morning light sparkle on the gentle ripples of a peacefully calm sea.

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Day 6: Specular sparkles

 

For all that this challenge started out as something fun and an opportunity to take a break from emulsion-based photography if only for the expediency of daily uploading, the bombing in Manchester on Tuesday weighed on my mind. I found myself looking not so much for subject matter to fit the parameters of the challenge but for images to express my emotions and reflections on that dreadful event and it’s aftermath.

What the final image of this series should be has been growing on me over the past couple of days. People from all corners of society have come together, helping, supporting and sharing. I’d like to think that this image is a reflection of the good in our society and of the hope that we have for the future as a result.

 

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Day 7: Society

Kissing in the dark

My eyes were closed as I savoured the moment with the object of my desires, gently feeling my way around in the darkness, the rythmic sound of the darkroom clock in the background as the sweet aroma of fixer filled my nostrils, knowing that at the tip of my fingers things were developing …

My preferred method of developing sheet film is six at a time in a Paterson tank with a MOD54 adapter. However if I have only one or two sheets that I want to assess, I resort to tray developing.

Tray developing is done in the darkroom, in the dark: no comforting warm glow from a red safelight, knowing where everything is laid out, relying on touch to gently work from tray to tray, listening keenly to the tick of the darkroom clock, shutting out all distractions to count down the seconds. It’s an intense spellbound time alone with just a piece of film for company. Strangely I often find myself closing my eyes as if to shut out the dark in the darkness.

The experiment

I’ve been experimenting with a zoom pinhole technique in an attempt to create a ‘look’ for a wee project I’m thinking about. It’s quite a simple idea: To use the ratchet focussing mechanism of my Intrepid field camera to adjust the pinhole projection distance during a long exposure with a lensboard mounted pinhole.

So today with good, bright conditions forecast I exposed two sheets of Harman Direct Positive paper and then two sheets of Ilford FP4+. With a five stop ISO difference between the two media it would be interesting to see the different results each would produce.

Direct Positive Paper

For the Direct Positive paper, exposures given were about three minutes – I feel four would have been better but I got what I wanted from the prints. The zoom range was from 190mm to 100mm with a 0.5mm pinhole. It felt difficult to match the zoom action to the time available and the second exposure was much the better for the experience of the first!

The first ran out of zoom and was zoomed a second time before the exposure was completed. It was also a poor choice of subject with a big slab of shadow on the right (left in the print!) that’s pretty much underexposed. The second is a bit underexposed but is close to the effect I think I’m looking for and my favourite from the day.

FP4+

The FP4+ exposures were over the same zoom range but with exposure times much reduced to around four seconds. I had expected that zooming over a shorter exposure time would be easier but actually found it rather rushed and very difficult to control.

The first is a bit jerky as I struggled to cover the zoom range within the exposure time. I was ready for it for the second exposure and though I like the result, the day was too bright to fully achieve the effect I wanted. The exposures were just too short – an unusual comment for a pinhole!

It’s been an enjoyable day: out and about with a camera, trying something different, taking food for thought from the results and of course, that sensual time in the darkroom!